How Cryptocurrency and NFTs Fit into Your Estate Plan
Five years ago, cryptocurrency was probably not on your radar. Today, it may be an important investment in your portfolio. You could even own some nonfungible tokens (NFTs), which are powered by the same blockchain-based technology. Despite the dizzying fluctuations in the value of these assets, you should ensure that they are included in your estate plan so you can preserve them for your heirs. Preserving Cryptocurrency: Now and Later Cryptocurrency, which is digital money, is exhibiting stability as part of the global financial landscape, even though the value of individual coins (units of cryptocurrency) has been notoriously volatile. The overall market hit $3 trillion in value in 2021, only to lose $2 trillion in value so far in 2022. Emerging from the ashes of the 2008 financial disaster, cryptocurrency is likely to retain its status as an investment option because its holders enjoy freedom from government and bank control. This advantage can become a drawback when it comes to preserving cryptocurrency. Before you consider including cryptocurrency in an estate plan, it is imperative that you hang on to your digital cash on a day-to-day basis. This involves preserving the passwords and digital wallets (storage units) connected to your cryptocurrency. This will avoid a disastrous situation like the one that befell a Welsh man who accidentally threw away half a billion dollars’ worth of Bitcoin. Consider the following options to preserve your cryptocurrency: Hot wallet: An online app that provides convenience but is vulnerable to being hacked or stolen Cold wallet: An offline storage device that avoids hacking but is a small item and easily misplaced Custodial wallet: A third-party crypto exchange that holds your coins, avoiding the risk of losing the device, although the company could freeze your funds or be the target of a cyber attack Paper wallet: A printed list of keys and QR codes that is safe from hackers but easily misplaced Tax Consequences to Consider Another important consideration is that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) considers cryptocurrency to be property rather than currency. That means it is subject to capital gains tax. Whether the owner holds it for longer than twelve months determines whether the IRS will assess short-term or long-term capital gains tax. Exchanging cryptocurrency for fiat currency (a country’s official money) is a taxable event, as is exchanging one kind of cryptocurrency for another (e.g., exchanging Bitcoin for Ether). If you are in the business of selling or creating cryptocurrency (called “mining”), ordinary income tax rates will apply. What about NFTs? NFTs are unique digital collectible items. They are based on the concept “I own this.” It does not matter what “this” is, just that it is valuable or may gain value someday. That is why various digital collectible assets, such as the following, can be characterized as NFTs: Digital artwork Video clips Social media posts Memes Gaming tokens Digital real estate While being the owner of the virtual Pyramid of Giza may seem silly today, who knows how much it will be worth tomorrow? This makes a little more sense when we think about emerging technologies like virtual […]Read more
What is a Texas Medical Power of Attorney?
A Texas medical power of attorney is a document that allows a person to select someone else to make health decisions on their behalf. The principal can limit or give unrestricted powers to the agent to make any type of responsibility, including ending the principal’s life. Alternate agents may also be selected in the event the primary agent cannot perform. The person you designate to make medical decisions for you is called an agent. The medical power of attorney gives your agent broad power to make any health care decisions you could have made if you were not incapacitated, unless you specifically restrict his or her authority. Medical powers of attorney are not just for the elderly. Unexpected injuries or illness can occur at any age, so all adults should have one in place. What Are the Requirements of a Medical Power of Attorney in Texas? To be valid in Texas, a medical power of attorney must either be: signed by you in the presence of a notary public OR signed by you in the presence of two witnesses, who also sign the document. Witnesses cannot be any of the following: The person you have designated as your agent; A person related to you by blood or marriage; A person entitled to any part of your estate after your death under a will or codicil executed by you or by operation of law; Your attending physician; An employee of your attending physician; An employee of a health care facility in which you are a patient if the employee is providing direct patient care to you or is an officer, director, partner, or business office employee of the health care facility or of any parent organization of the health care facility; or A person who, at the time this medical power of attorney is executed, has a claim against any part of your estate after your death. When Does a Medical Power of Attorney Become Effective? The medical power of attorney becomes effective immediately after you execute it and is effective indefinitely unless it contains a specific termination date or you revoke it. If the medical power of attorney has a specific termination date but you are incompetent on that date the medical power of attorney continues to be effective until you become competent. If you are able to make medical decisions for yourself, you have the control and right to make those decisions. In the event that you cannot make these decisions, your “agent” can legally make medical decisions for you. A medical power of attorney authorizes your agent to act on your behalf only when and if your attending physician certifies in writing and files the certification in your medical records that based on his reasonable medical judgment, you are incompetent. Regardless of the existence of a medical power of attorney or the declaration of incompetence, the statutes specify no medical provider can give or withhold treatment from you if you object. Can I Revoke a Medical Power of Attorney? You can revoke a medical power of attorney by notifying either your agent or your health care provider, orally […]Read more
Simple Steps of Probating A Properly Drafted Will in Texas
– A service offered for a FLAT FEE by Cynthia Fronterhouse FILING THE APPLICATION FOR PROBATE WITH ORIGINAL WILL When you lose a loved one, the original will is filed with the proper court. An application asking the court to appoint the executor listed in the will is filed with the court. After filing the will, the clerk of the court will post a notice at the court advising all interested parties that the will has been filed. The notice must remain posted for at least 10 days. The purpose of this waiting period is to give those who wish to contest a will time to do so. If no one comes forward to contest the will, the courts will move forward with confirming the will’s validity. However, a will can be challenged at any time after the will is offered to probate and up to two years after a will has been admitted for probate. HOLDING A HEARING A hearing is held before a probate judge. During this hearing, the judge will recognize the decedent’s death, confirm that the individual applying to be executor is qualified and verify that the will is valid. Once the hearing is complete, the judge admits the will to probate and appoints the executor. The clerk then issues “letters testamentary” to the executor, which serve as notice to third parties that the executor has authority to act on the estate’s behalf. INVENTORY, APPRAISEMENT AND LIST OF CLAIMS The executor now has the responsibility to inventory and appraise the deceased person’s estate within 90 days of the hearing. These responsibilities include notifying beneficiaries of the will, posting a notice to creditors, discharging debts, filing the decedent’s final federal tax return, and otherwise settling the estate. The executor may also be responsible for selling estate assets. Attorney Cynthia Fronterhouse can assist with many of these duties for a Flat Fee.Read more
Is your will valid?
Is your will valid? To make a valid Will in Texas, you must have legal capacity, testamentary capacity, testamentary intent and certain formalities must be followed. If a Will does not meet all of the requirements set forth by the statutes, it will be declared invalid, meaning that your estate could be distributed according to a statutory formula rather than the way you would have preferred. Dying without a Will – The Complexities of Texas Intestate Laws Without a will you have no choice as to who will administer your estate, who will be the guardian of your minor children or the custodian of the estate of your minor children, or who will receive your property in what proportions or when. WHAT TO DO IF YOU NEED TO PROBATE A WILL. . .One of the biggest concerns for people contemplating the probate process is the expense required in fully probating an estate. Luckily, a properly drafted Will simplifies the probate process. Independent administration in Texas allows Executors and Administrators to serve largely independent of Court supervision. As a result, the probate process in Texas is streamlined and efficient. WHAT TO DO IF YOU ARE THE SURVIVING SPOUSE. . .In order to ensure that all estate property is fully and efficiently distributed, it is recommended that the surviving spouse probate the Will at the death of the first spouse. Community property residences are generally owned as tenants-in-common; thus, if the surviving spouse later attempts to sell the home, some form of probate or estate administration must be initiated to transfer full title on the house into the surviving spouse’s name. REMEMBER: Texas Probate Code only provides four (4) years to probate a Will. After four (4) years, all heirs must be notified of any attempt to probate a Will, timely and costly. Learn more about our will and estate planning services.Read more